Camera Settings For Aurora Photography – How to Take Great Northern Lights Photos


Northern lights over a forest - article on camera settings for aurora borealis

“Quick! The Aurora is out! What settings should I set my camera to?” It’s the most frequent question I see when there is a geomagnetic storm in progress or the immediate forecast. Unfortunately, it’s a bit of a loaded question. Not all cameras or sensors are the same, and the aurora is a very dynamic phenomenon; there is no one-setting-fits-all answer.

This article is about getting to know and understand your camera settings to give you a starting point on aurora photography and help you figure out what are the best camera settings for aurora. If you feel comfortable with camera settings, you can skip to the examples at the end. If you are just looking for information on viewing the aurora in general, check out this article here.

This guide is based on how I shoot the aurora, the way I operate my camera at night, and the thought process I go through. These aren’t rules to follow, but suggestions to get you started so you can find what works for you and your camera system.

Aurora borealis over Murphy Dome in Fairbanks

What kind of camera do you need?

Many different cameras can capture photos of the northern lights. Any camera that you can put on a fully manual setting, or “M” and be able to manually focus. That includes all DSLRs, mirrorless, and some compact cameras. It’s nice to have a wide-angle lens so you can get as much of the sky into the frame as possible. There are even some apps for smartphones that allow them to take somewhat decent aurora photos.

Camera Settings For Aurora Photography

What controls will you need to use?

The three essential camera controls you need to know and understand are:

  • Aperture – the amount of light coming into the camera
  • ISO – how well your camera uses incoming light
  • Shutter Speed – how long light will enter the camera


The aperture setting is the easiest decision for me when shooting aurora. I use the lowest setting possible. The aperture is the size of the opening in the lens. The highest aperture setting (or f-stop) corresponds to the smallest opening; at the lowest f-stop, the aperture is wide open allowing the most light in. It’s worth noting that many lenses may have higher optical aberrations at their lowest f-stop (chromatic aberration and vignetting are typical), so it’s worthwhile testing this with your lens to see what you find acceptable.

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Most kit lenses that come with a DSLR or mirrorless will have the lowest f-stop around f/3.5. There are a good number of mid-price, wide-angle lenses that are f/2.8 and some (usually pricey) at f/1.8 or f/1.4. The benefit of using a higher aperture setting is that you get a higher depth of field (greater distance range in focus), which typically isn’t as important when shooting the aurora.

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I usually change the ISO setting very little while shooting aurora. The ISO setting controls the sensitivity of your camera’s sensor (or how strongly the camera boosts low light). It’s kind of like when you turn up the brightness on a photo in an editor, except it’s happening in-camera.

Think of the ISO as an amplifier, and just as an amp can take a low volume voice and blast it over a whole stadium, a high ISO setting can take a tiny bit of light and practically turn your camera into night vision goggles if it goes high enough. This is nice because a high ISO setting means you can use faster shutter speed and capture more detail in fast-moving aurora. There is a price to pay for this amplification in the amount of electronic noise as well as a reduction in color and contrast.

The quality of your images from the ISO setting is probably the most variable control across different cameras (and the largest benefit to having an expensive one). You will need to find that “sweet spot” that balances the ability of speed and image quality.

For instance, my Nikon D7000 looks fairly good at an ISO up to 1250 for night images, but starts to suffer at 1600 and up [The more current model NIKON D7500, Nikon D7200 or even Nikon D7100 24.1 MP slightly edge out the older model in ISO performance]. Photos from the Nikon D4 or Canon 5D Mark III push a pretty decent image quality up to ISO 3200-6400 (and up). My older Nikon D90 starts to suffer above ISO 800.

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If you want my quick answer for ISO setting, considering a mid-range DSLR or mirrorless with an f/stop in the f/2.8-3.5 range: ISO 640-1600 should produce an image of reasonable quality. For high-end cameras (like Nikon D4 or Canon EOS 5D Mark III) an ISO of 3200 – 5000 can yield quite good results.

Shutter Speed

In my opinion, the shutter speed is the most important thing to think about while shooting the aurora. The longer your camera’s shutter stays open the longer light hits the camera sensor. You’re probably using the lowest aperture setting, you have a fairly limited range to work with for ISO, but reasonable shutter speeds for aurora photography can be a fraction of a second up to as long as your camera will let you (typically 30 seconds without a manual release).

The thing to keep in mind is motion. Taking a 5 second long of an exposure of a race car driving by is going to be a blur, the concept is no different for aurora. If it’s not moving fast, diffuse, or just sitting on the horizon it’s easy to get away with long shutter speed. That can allow you to decrease the ISO setting and get a higher quality image.

On the other hand, during a strong geomagnetic storm the aurora flickers and dances with pinks and reds shooting through, rays and coronas form and disappear on millisecond timescales. With a long exposure, all of that wonderful detail is lost. That’s when I really crank up the ISO and take the shutter speed to as fast as I can, sometimes to less than 1 second!

Aurora from the Granite Tors Trail

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Even at night you can get too much light and overexpose your photos. The camera’s sensor is more receptive to the green emission lines from the aurora than your eye. It can be easy to use too long of shutter speed so that your sensor is over-saturated by that light.

Often this makes that green aurora look too bright or even white (all details are lost) in the photo. It’s hard to come up with a simple rule to prevent this. You will just have to watch the monitor (or the histogram) on your camera until you figure it out. The photo above has a section of overexposed aurora in the band.

Scenarios and Examples

What’s the scene? Think about what the aurora is doing! Is it fast and bright overhead, or just a dim oval on the horizon? Here are a couple of examples with settings info:

1) A dim aurora barely above the horizon with no visible motion or structure?

This is the most common sight at high latitudes like my home in Fairbanks. Almost every clear night the auroral oval is visible to the northeast for us.

  • Go for longer shutter speed, there are no details to capture.
  • Longer shutter speed means you can decrease the ISO for less noise
Aurora reflection at Red Squirrel Lake
camera settings for aurora:
Camera: Nikon D90
ISO: 640
f/stop: 3.5
shutter speed: 30 deconds
Camera: Nikon D90
ISO: 640
f/stop: 3.5
shutter speed: 30 seconds

The activity was low and there was almost no visible motion of the aurora. It was just an oval band sitting on the horizon, barely above the trees. I used a very long shutter speed and decreased ISO to lower noise. This helped create a smoother image, which is nice for the reflection! It should be noted that it’s not exactly what it looked like to the eye since everything including the landscape is brighter.

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2) Aurora in Twilight

This is definitely one of my favorites! The aurora is bright enough to be seen even though there are barely any stars out. There’s more motion, but not much detail or color yet. This is because it’s usually only possible to see the aurora when it is very active if the sky is still light.

Aurora borealis in cobalt sky at twilight with camera settings for aurora photography.
Camera: Nikon D90
ISO: 400
f/stop: 3.5
shutter speed: 10 seconds
Camera: Nikon D90
ISO: 400
f/stop: 3.5
shutter speed: 10 seconds

I wanted to keep a low ISO so that the bright sky didn’t get too noisy. In this case, I used way lower than normal at ISO 400. I absolutely could have used a higher ISO and shorter shutter speed. This would have provided more detail in the color. However, the aurora wasn’t moving very fast so there wasn’t really a need for fast shutter speed.

3) Fast, bright, or overhead corona

The aurora is directly overhead, moving incredibly fast, with a strong corona (diverging rays shooting up into the sky), pink lower borders are flickering across the sky. Think fast!

Aurora borealis directly overhead. Camera settings: 
Camera: Nikon D7000
ISO: 1600
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 1.6 second
Camera: Nikon D7000
ISO: 1600
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 1.6 second

At 1.6 seconds, this still wasn’t a fast enough speed to capture all the detail. This image probably would have benefited from using a higher ISO. If I had, the shutter speed could have been brought down to less than 1 second. This would help a lot in bringing out that lower pinkish border (it moves so fast). This is a PSA for learning how to adjust your setting quickly because these “storms” don’t often last very long!

Aurora corona directly overhead.
Camera settings for aurora photography.
Camera: Nikon D7100
ISO: 2500
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 1.3 second
Camera: Nikon D7100
ISO: 2500
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 1.3 second

Typically with an “electrifying” corona like this, I like to shoot with a shutter speed of less than 1 second. It really moves like lightning, and there is a ton of color and detail. But it was a cold night, and I didn’t want to take my hands out of my gloves more than I needed to.

Camera: Nikon D780
Lens: Rokinon 14mm f/2.8 for Nikon
ISO: 6400
f/stop: f/2.8
shutter speed: 0.6 sec

Today, many cameras have excellent low-light sensitivity, really allowing you to push the ISO without much noise degradation. That’s fantastic for wild displays like the one above, with active, colorful bands and lots of structure that you wouldn’t want to get washed out with a slower shutter speed.

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4) Active and bright, but slower than corona

There may be multiple bands, but not quickly flickering across the sky. The motion is reminiscent of steam coming out of a smokestack. The high-altitude oxygen may be coming out to play, casting a red or purplish hue above the green. This is kind of the typical “good” Alaska night, not the best we get to see, but certainly something to write home about.

Camera Settings For Aurora Photography – How to Take Great Northern Lights Photos
Camera: Nikon D7000
ISO: 1250
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 13 seconds
lens: Tokina 11-16mm f/2.8 AT-X116 Pro DX II (for Nikon Cameras)

Additional Thoughts

I hope you find this helpful and that it gives you a jumping-off point. My most important piece of advice: don’t glue your eyes to that camera! Take time to watch the aurora and enjoy it. Go outside, shoot, watch out for moose, and have fun. I’ll keep adding some more examples below with different camera/lens combinations below.

Most of my photos were taken with the Nikon D7000 series (D7000 or D7100). The current model is the Nikon D7500. I’ve found this to be a fantastic mid-high-range crop-sensor DSLR. It’s also a great all-around camera that doesn’t break the bank. This is good for me because I tend to break equipment when I’m off in the backcountry for days on end. If you are leaning toward Canon, the 7D Mark II would be a similar model.

Note there are more articles still to come on aurora shooting. Other important topics are focusing, understanding the histogram (more detail in getting the exposure right), and using a tripod. For focus, you can start with a focus at infinity (simple), or find the hyperfocal distance for your lens (at a given aperture and focal length). For now, I can refer you to the Cambridge in Color site.

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All images copyright Lee W Petersen – Please contact for usage:

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More Examples

Aurora over Fairbanks. Camera Settings:
Camera: Nikon D750
ISO: 2500
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 10 seconds
lens: Sigma 24-70mm f/2.8 IF EX DG HSM AF for Nikon Digital SLR Cameras
Camera: Nikon D750
ISO: 2500
f/stop: f/2.8
shutter speed: 10 seconds
lens: Sigma 24-70mm f/2.8 IF EX DG HSM AF for Nikon Digital

The full-frame camera advantage comes from the larger sensors, which can collect more light per pixel. As a result, there is less random noise. The aurora here was fairly active but not very bright. Being able to increase the ISO to 2500 was very helpful to capture.

Camera: Nikon D850
ISO: 2500
f/stop: f/2.8
shutter speed: 1.3 seconds
lens: Rokinon 14mm f/2.8 for Nikon
Camera: Sony Alpha a7III
ISO: 6400
f/stop: f/2.8
shutter speed: 0.2 seconds (1/5)
lens: Rokinon 14mm f/2.8 for Sony
Aurora borealis and the moon over a snowy forest
Camera: Nikon D7100
ISO: 2500
f/stop: 2.8
shutter speed: 1 second

Aurora and a bright moon can make fantastic shots as long as the northern lights are bright enough to be seen against the moonlight. It’s great when you can get the real foreground and not just silhouettes!

Blog Comments

This is so cool! Very nice guide.

I am a newcomer in Canada and lucky enough to watch aurora in the month of June 2014. I use a Nikon D90/ F3.5. The given instructions by lee work great for me. Sadly, the sky is mostly cloudy in Vancouver but I am hoping that tonight I can shoot my first pictures of our lovely, glamorous and vibrant guest! Thanks Lee.

Thank you so much – wishing you clear skies over Vancouver!

Nice guide, I recently moved to Alaska and didn’t pack my camera. I have never shot the aurora and wasn’t aware so many steps needed to capture aurora’s. I’m hoping you could give me some tips, I have borrowed a Minolta Maxxum 400si, its a film camera. I have set it to manual, aperture to 4.5 and shutter speed to 15 sec.


Film will definitely be a bit tougher since you can’t change the ISO on the fly. Do you know what kind and speed (ISO) film you are using? I’m guessing with an f-stop of 4.5 you’ll need to use at the very least a 15 second aperture. If your film is @ ISO 400, more like 30 seconds.

The film i got was 400, I can change to a 30 sec. would it help if i change the f-stop higher?

You wouldn’t want to increase the f-stop, since that would decrease the amount of light let into the camera. If you can, try decreasing it, unless 4.5 is the minimum. I would probably, in most cases, increase the shutter speed. Probably to the 20-30 second range, maybe even longer if the aurora isn’t very bright. You could also try experimenting with a faster film for your next roll – maybe something like Kodak Portra 800 or Fuji Superia 1600. Good luck!

Thank you for this wonderful article. I’ve been researching aurora photography for weeks…there is no better essay on the Internet…of that I am convinced. I live in Anchorage, but was lucky enough to be in Fairbanks for the show last night. What a way to bring in the New Years. In researching “Lights” photography the only thing I’ve had a hard time finding is directions to safe parking spots. Last night, by luck, we found a perfect pull off along the Parks Highway, about 10.5 miles south of the first/last gas station in Fairbanks.

Thank you so much, I’m glad you found it helpful! And that you got to see last night’s display! I’m currently working on a few more articles pertaining to safety, both roadside and backcountry, and also some of my favorite places to view in the area. Thanks again and best wishes for the new year!

I have a Canon 6D. Can you recommend the best lens for me to take pictures of the aurora Borealis?
Is a wide angle fixed lens f/1.4 24 mm better, or a zoom lens like EF 16-35 mm f/2.8. I don’t have any wide angle lens, and want to invest in one for this trip.

Both would absolutely be suitable. The f/1.4 may be faster, but could also be more than necessary when the sensor on the 6D will be fine in regard to noise at higher ISO’s. I’d probably lean toward the 16-35 mm for aurora, but that’s personal preference. Often times I like to try to get that “full-sky” image, and the 24mm just isn’t wide enough. I hope this is somewhat helpful.

Hi Abhishek,

Unfortunately, I don’t have any experience with the Cybershot. Although looking at the specs, since it has a full manual mode, you can adjust the shutter speed to get a longer exposure (up to 30 seconds in this case).

Here is a relevant link in the user manual: exposure shooting

Item number 3 will tell you how to adjust both the exposure and aperture (f-stop). I’d probably start with the lowest f-stop you can, f/3.1 when not zoomed in (corresponding to the largest aperture opening). I’d also start with a long exposure time (shutter speed) at 20-30 seconds, and make adjustments as you go and learn. Don’t forget to use a tripod!

I hope this is helpful. Much luck to you, thanks for stopping by!


Living in upstate NY, near VT, it’s still frustrating trying to get shots of the aurora due to light pollution. My wife and I will be leaving on a 6 night trip to Iceland in a few days with a new Canon T5i, 18-55 f3.5 kitted with tripod, extra batteries, intervalometer, etc. Found your website very informative. Please give your thoughts on my expected results, given clear sky, and a show above.

Correction: T6i, not T5i

Sorry for my late reply, I’ve been quite busy the last few days.
You should be able to get fine images with the T6i! It doesn’t have a great sensor for low-light, so try not to push the ISO up too high, but it’s more than adequate to get some great shots. Maybe do some test shots at ISO 1250, 1600, 2000 to see how much noise you get. I haven’t shot aurora with it, but my guess is you’ll want to stick to ISO 800-1250. I would maybe consider a slightly wider lens (maybe a rental if time?). 18mm isn’t bad, but you’ll probably find yourself missing some of the swath of sky you want to get! Anyway, good luck and have an excellent trip, I’m so jealous of your Iceland trip!

Can aperture and shutter speed be on manual and Iso settings on auto .. Does it work well?

Technically yes, but then you will lose control of the exposure since the camera will adjust the ISO depending how the light metering is done in camera. At night, this may mean the camera will automatically adjust to fairly high ISO (unless it allows you to set a limit) and go beyond the bounds of acceptable noise. I’d say it would be better just to practice on full manual in different lighting conditions at night. Definitely, do some tests in the dark to see what the noise levels are like with your camera system at increasingly higher ISO settings, and then set some kind of a limit.

I only have a few ISO settings that I’ll use with any given camera. With my D7100 ISO 2000 is my upper limit for noise. I’ll use ISO 800 if I’m needing long exposures anyway since any motion will already be drowned out and gradually move up as I need shorter exposures because of the activity level. ISO 1250 and 1600 are my most used with that camera (given I have a fast lens on it). I’ll only push the ISO higher when I need less than 1-second exposures.

Hope this is helpful. Happy shooting!

Hi, thanks for your useful article! I will like to seek your advice on which camera will be more ideal for shooting aurora:

1) nikon dslr d5200, with lens AF-S Nikkor 18-55mm, f3.5 – 5.6.
2) canon powershot s120, zoom lens, 5.2 – 26 mm, f1.8 – 5.7. It has manual function that allows me to adjust the iso, focus etc.

Lower aperture seems to be more ideal in general, so it seems like the powershot is better relative to the d5200 of that lens? Am really new to all these photography stuff, and grateful for any advice! Thanks!

I would say it would depend on what you want to do most with the camera. The D5200 will allow more versatility with a wide option of available lenses and easier controls for adjusting manual settings (dials instead of menus). I would prefer having the DSLR, especially in night shooting. But, DSLR’s are not for everyone, they are big, heavy, and not the easiest to use without some experience and practice. If you want to have a camera that you can keep in a small bag or a pocket, and occasionally use to shoot some night scenes, the powershot will be sufficient for photographing the aurora. The quality of the images you can grab by either will be roughly the same, but the larger lens on the 18-55mm will most likely lead to better sharpness and less vignetting. The D5200 will allow you more room to grow as a photographer, if that’s what you want. Maybe now, you can only get the 18mm f3.5 lens, but you can always upgrade (or expand your collection) later.

I hope these points are helpful! Happy shooting!

Thank you for the reply! I brought both cameras but mostly used the dslr for shooting the aurora. Lucky enough to see it for one of the nights! Thank you:)

I’m a newbie to photography and would love to see the aurora hoping to in Moray Scotland later this year. Following your guide I might even get a few photos!

Thankyou very comprehensive.

Really well done, especially for a beginner to the hobby. Going to Iceland in November ’16 and wanted some good tips. Most interested in getting decent shots with a simple Coolpix Nikon s9700. I’ve taken big game Africa with DSLR but on this trip I’m not there long enough to bring a lot of equipment. I think with your guide I just might get by with simple equipment. Thanks

How did the Coolpix work? Did it take OK pics? That’s the camera I have but am debating if I should invest in a DSLR for my trip in January.

I’ve only shot with DSLR’s, haven’t tried a Coolpix. It’s ISO range is a bit low, so I suspect there will be a fair bit of noise at higher ISO’s. You could run into some other problems like autofocus issues. That said, it should be capable of taking photos of the aurora. If your goal is aurora photography then I’d probably move to a DSLR.

Thank you. I decided to get a DSLR.

Hi there,

I have found your article very informative but am curious about recommended settings for shooting the aurora under a full moon which I will have on a trip to Yellowknife next year! I am currently using a 6D and 14mm Samyang f2.8 lens and have some previous experience shooting aurora, but not with a full moon and don’t want to lose any colour or definition.

Many thanks, Matt

Hi Matt,

It’s awesome shooting aurora with moonlight! The snow is so reflective that it’s usually bright enough to walk around without a light. My best suggestion is to shoot away from the moon taking advantage of the foreground illumination. At f/2.8 I usually need to shoot pretty fast (most of my examples are around 2.5 sec | f/2.8 | ISO 1600). A diffuse aurora might be hard to shoot, but typical bright bands like you can get in Yellowknife should be good. If the aurora is bright and active you’re already shooting fast – you won’t lose details and definition. Good luck, have a fun trip!

This is exactly the kind of guide for photographing auroras that I was looking for! Thanks!

Hi LW! Thank you for this very detailed and useful article. I finally managed to shoot the aurora yesterday night. I am more or less happy with the results. However the biggest hurdle I had to overcome is the cold. I live in the North of Sweden and was shooting at -18 C. I was wearing two pairs of thin gloves to be able to operate the camera but I was freazing after 15 minutes out there. How do you solve the problem of having to press small buttons and protect your hands at the same time? I suspect you set up your camera before hand and only hit the shutter button, right? Cheers.

Hi Massimo, I’m glad you liked the article! I wear a pair of merino wool liners under heavy expedition mitts like these. I loop the cord to the mittens around my wrist so when I need to adjust the camera or tripod I can just pull them off and not worry about losing them. Then when I’m done the mittens go right back on. You’re hands will warm up much faster in mitts than gloves and you can even stick chemical hand warmers in there to stay even warmer. My camera typically stops working correctly before my hands get too cold. Hopefully this suggestion helps!

Hi I am using Canon Powershot S110, is there any advice how I can take the Aurora lighting?

Hi, so sorry for my delayed reply! I’ve never used this specific camera, but I do have some tips for shooting aurora with a point-and-shoot. You will still get the best results if you use a tripod. You will want to use the manual mode (M) that allows you to set the aperture and shutter speed. I would stay zoomed out completely since this camera has an effective 24mm focal length and then you can use the largest aperture size (smallest f-stop number) of 2.0. From there you will need to adjust the shutter speed as necessary, starting with 5-10 second exposures would be good for most nights. The tricky part with a point-and-shoot camera will be focus. You don’t have much focus control on these, so you may have to rely on the camera’s auto-focus. That might not be very reliable in dark conditions. Best of luck!

Hi! Thank you so much for sharing your tips. Very details and very easy to understand especially for someone like me. My friend recently gave me a Nikon D7000, I am not so much familiar with the settings. I have a lens 18-105mm. I think it is not ideal for shooting Aurora but I don’t think I will buy a new camera just to shoot Aurora for my upcoming travel. The minimum fstop I can get is 3.5 with this lens. Do you think I need to know anything else for shootings? And by the way, since it is going to be so cold, where I am going is Murmansk, Russian, how do we keep the camera function well?
Thank you so much !
And btw, happy new yearrr!

I’m glad you found it helpful. The 18-105 f/3.5 will work fine. You won’t see as much of the sky with it and will probably need to use a bit slower shutter speed, but as long as you are using a tripod you can get excellent photos with it!

For dealing with the cold:
1) Keep yourself warm. A good jacket, hat, and insulated pants, layer well. Warm boots. Layer gloves – I wear medium-thick liners under a heavy mitten. This way, I can pop the mitt off and fidget with the camera for a bit without getting frostbite and quickly get the mitten back on.

2) Carry extra batteries. Keep them in pockets close to your body to stay warm. The camera batteries will drain quickly in the cold. Sometimes after warming a cold, “dead” battery, you can even use it again for a bit if necessary.

3) Make sure you are not using live-view, and turn off Image Review, so you aren’t wasting power on the LCD.

4) Change your settings and focus as much as you can before going out in the cold. The screens will be slow and difficult to read once the camera is cold. If you can see the moon out a window, you can focus on that before-hand and then put a piece of tape over the focus ring if the lens doesn’t have a lock on it. Make sure auto-focus is off.

5) Keep the camera from freezing up when you go back inside to warmer temperatures. I leave my camera bag outside so that it also gets cold. Put the camera in the bag and seal it well before going inside. Often I will even put the camera in a zip-lock bag to keep moisture from condensing on the camera. Let the camera warm up slowly. Otherwise, moisture will condense on and inside the camera and immediately freeze. This can damage electronics and form ice inside the lens. Usually, once I bring the camera inside, it is done for the night.

Hopefully this is helpful for you! Have fun shooting in Murmansk, that sounds like an awesome trip!

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