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Primula eximia Greene
Primula tschuktschorum ssp. arctica (E.A. Busch) Á. Löve & D. Löve
Primula tschuktschorum ssp. cairnesiana A.E. Porsild
Primula tschuktschorum ssp. eximia (Greene) A.E. Porsild
Primula tschuktschorum var. arctica (E.A. Busch) Fernald
Duration – Growth Habit
Perennial – Forb/herb
Identification and Information
Arctic primrose is a perennial herb, very variable in size as well as the number of flowers, growing to be 2-40 cm tall. It grows from short rhizomes and often has a thick scape-like stem. The leaves are basal and broadly lanceolate. The vegetative parts of the plant are usually farinose, covered in a white powder.
The inflorescence is composed of 3-20 flowers with involucral bracts and attached via pedicel. The pedicels can be slightly erect or nodding. The flowers are trumpet-like with the lobed petals opening outward. The corolla tube is rose-magenta and 1-3 times the length of the bracts. A white ring encloses the stamen typically not protruding beyond the corolla tube. Most of the petals will have a small notch in the center, unlike the similar-looking, rarer Chukchi primrose that is not notched.
Chukchi Primrose Confusion
There seems to be a lot of confusion regarding arctic primrose and another rare species, the Chukchi primrose. The Chukchi primrose lives primarily on the Bering coast in alpine areas. Its range extends down to Bristol Bay and it may be found in the Aleutian archipelago. While there are reports of it being found in the interior of Alaska, I am a bit doubtful of this. Following sources saying that it is found in the Primrose Ridge area of Alaska, I hiked out there in the summer of 2021. I found a lot of arctic primrose, but no Chukchi primrose. It seems to be the case of one person misidentifying it and then others using that reference.
One of the tell-tale differences between the two is that the Chuchki primrose is completely efarinose, lacking the powdery coating on the stem and leaves and having un-notched petals (subtle). As I looked at other photos identifying Chuchki primrose, I found that most of them were farinose, including every photo that I saw identifying the plant in the Denali area. It is possible that Chuchki primrose is found in the interior, but I have yet to see definitive confirmation of that. Searching through records in the Arctos database revealed no specimens outside of coastal regions.
This confusion may be exacerbated by the fact that P. primula and P. tschuktschorum may hybridize.
What’s in a name?
It’s also worth noting that Primula eximia is widely used as the scientific name for arctic primrose, however, that is a synonym and not an accepted name, Primula pumila is the officially accepted name. This is because they were thought to be distinct species until relatively recently. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility lists P. pumila as the synonym. Flora of North America sheds some light on this naming; the epithet pumila means dwarf, but this is not a dwarf plant. However, P. pumila was the earlier usage which gives it the priority under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. And now you know that is a thing that exists.
In this guide, I stick with the taxonomy listed in the Integrated Taxonomic Information System for all of my nomenclatures.
For information only (typically historical) – I take no responsibility for adverse effects from the use of any plant.
No known uses, unknown if edible – but, some primrose flowers and leaves are known to be edible.
Distribution and Habitat
Primula pumila can be found in Alaska, the Yukon, and eastern coastal Siberia. NatureServe Explorer and the USDA also claim it to be found in the Northwest Territories, while GBIF does not. It is listed as imperiled in the Yukon.
Arctic primrose tends to live in wet to fully saturated soils and in stream beds. It is most often found at higher elevations or in tundra slopes where there is water moving through the soil.
References and Further Reading
Classification and Taxonomy
P. (Ledeb.) Pax Taxonomic Serial No.: 836154, ITIS database
P. eximia Greene arctic primrose, USDA Database
Map and Distribution
Primula eximia Arctic Primrose, NatureServe Explorer
Description and Information
11. Primula pumila (Ledebour) Pax, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 10: 208. 1888., Flora of North America
Stewart River Training Area Rare Plant Survey 2006, Alaska Natural Heritage Program